Inside front cover

Codex on the Flight of Birds While the front and back covers of the manuscript are almost devoid of text or drawings, the inside covers include both.
On the inside front cover Leonardo describes methods that he either invented himself or adapts from those of others for the making of medals, the preparation of diamond dust and colours and enamels for painting.

«Per fare l'impronta delle medaglie polvere di smeriglio mista ad acquavite, o scaglia di ferro con aceto, e cenere di foglie di noce o cenere di paglia finemente tritata. Il diamante si pesta avvolto nel piombo, e battuto con il martello…»
(To make the impression of medals emery dust mixed with acquavita [an aqueous solution of ethanol], or flakes of iron with vinegar, and finely ground ashes of walnut leaves or hay. A diamond is ground by wrapping it in lead and beating it with a hammer.)

NOTE. For each page of Leonardo’s Codex we provide a brief summary, with the quotation of one that page’s most significant passages edited in modern Italian, with an English translation.

translation by Kim Williams